Sketching Johor Bahru #4

February 6, 2014

Rabu, Mendung, 32C . Masjid Negeri Sultan Abu Bakar dibina antara tahun 1892 dan 1900 di bawah arahan Sultan Abuk Bakar (yang tidak hidup untuk melihat siap), dengan arkitek Tuan Haji Mohamed Arif bin Punak.

Selaras dengan kepentingan Anglophile Sultan Johor, masjid adalah hampir Victoria sifatnya dengan, selain daripada bidai perladangan kayu pada pintu, bukti minimum apa-apa pengaruh Melayu. Tutup ke istana sultan dalam saiz mengenakan, menara menyamar sebagai menara jam Barat. Yang paling mengenakan yang menara jam menandakan pintu masuk dan membentuk porte-cochère tidak jauh berbeza dengan pintu masuk untuk istana diraja yang berdekatan dan dewan penonton, Balai Cengkih. Setiap satu daripada menara adalah empat tingkat, dengan kuasa dua iaitu pertama dan kedua dan octagonals Parsi ketiga dan keempat membentuk. Dari segi terperinci muka bangunan , Alice Ishmail telah disenaraikan dalam QUT tesis 2008 beliau pelbagai ciri-ciri Barat: kubah, bumbung keranjingan, menara, tiang klasik, pilasters, menunjukkan gerbang, keystones, pediments dan pentafsiran yang ditampal pada birai hias dan ibukota. Semua ini, kecuali kubah dan pediments adalah adalah yang terdapat di istana sultan yang berdekatan . Ketiadaan kayu dan ukiran kayu halus, digantikan di sini dengan kedudukan yang kukuh rendering plaster, menunjukkan peralihan daripada masjid vernakular kepada gaya masjid penjajahan besar. Contoh masjid penjajah Malaya dengan pengaruh Moor (termasuk ciri-ciri klasik) adalah Masjid Acheh Street, Georgetown , Pulau Pinang (1808), Masjid Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu (1808), Masjid Sultan Abu Bakar, Johor Bahru, Johor (1892), Masjid Jamek , Ipoh , Perak (1898), Masjid India, Ipoh, Perak (1908), Masjid Jamek, Kuala Lumpur (1909), Masjid Syed Alwi, Kangar, Perlis (1910), Masjid Zahir, Alor Setar, Kedah (1912), Masjid Ubudiah, Kuala Kangsar, Perak (1912), Masjid Kapitan Keling, Georgetown, Pulau Pinang (1916), Masjid Al-Muhammadi, Kota Bharu, Kelantan (1922), Masjid Alauddin, Kelang, Selangor (1925) dan Masjid Jamek, Muar, Johor (1925). Skim warna dinding putih dan bumbung biru berjubin adalah sama seperti istana sultan, tetapi di sini di masjid, kursus tali di atas beberapa gerbang pintu masuk dan rendah bersudut pediments setengah bulan di atas tingkap telah dicat dengan satu kuning-oren. Bahagian termasuk Barat tiang Corinthian dua klasik dan pengaruh Melayu dikatakan membuat dirinya dikenali dalam bukaan itu, walaupun kesederhanaan gaya Georgia di fanlights, juga ciri istana sultan. Lampu dalaman dikatakan berasal dari Turki; marmar dikatakan telah diimport dari Itali dan pengaruh Islam telah dikaitkan dengan Masjid Sultan Hassan dan Masjid Imam Shafie, kedua-dua di Mesir.

johor bahru 6

Wednesday, overcast, 32C. The Masjid Negeri Sultan Abu Bakar was constructed between 1892 and 1900 under the direction of Sultan Abuk Bakar (who didn’t live to see its completion), with architect Tuan Haji Mohamed Arif bin Punak.

Consistent with the Anglophile interests of the Johor Sultan, the mosque is almost completely Victorian in character with, apart from wooden plantation shutters on the doors, minimal evidence of any Malay influence. Close to the sultan’s palace in its imposing size, minarets are disguised as Western clocktowers. The most imposing of the clocktowers marks the entrance and forms a porte-cochere not dissimilar to entrances for the nearby royal palace and the audience hall, Balai Cengkih. Each of the minarets is four-storeys high, with the first and second being squares and the third and fourth forming Persian octagonals.

In terms of facade detail, Alice Ishmail has listed in her 2008 QUT thesis a variety of Western features: domes, hipped roof, turrets, classical columns, pilasters, pointed arches, keystones, pediments and plastered renderings on cornices and capitals. All of these, except for domes and pediments are are to be found on the nearby sultan’s palace. The absence of timber and fine wood carving, replaced here by strong presence of plaster rendering, indicates a move away from vernacular mosques to the grand colonial mosque style. Examples of Malayan colonial mosques with the Moorish influences (including classical features) are Acheen Street Mosque, Georgetown, Penang (1808), Abidin Mosque, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu (1808), Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque, Johor Bahru, Johor (1892), Jamek Mosque, Ipoh, Perak (1898), Indian Mosque, Ipoh, Perak (1908), Jamek Mosque, Kuala Lumpur (1909), Syed Alwi Mosque, Kangar, Perlis (1910), Zahir Mosque, Alor Setar, Kedah (1912), Ubudiah Mosque, Kuala Kangsar, Perak (1912), Kapitan Keling Mosque, Georgetown, Penang (1916), Al-Muhammadi Mosque, Kota Bharu, Kelantan (1922), Alauddin Mosque, Kelang, Selangor (1925) and Jamek Mosque, Muar, Johor (1925). Examples of the colonial mosques with later Art-Deco influence are Sultan Sulaiman Mosque, Kelang, Selangor (1932) and Jamek Mosque of Pontian, Johor (1938).The color scheme of plain white walls and blue-tiled roof is the same as the sultan’s palace, but here at the mosque, string courses above some of the entrance arches and low-angled half-moon pediments above the windows have been painted in a yellow-orange.

The interior includes double Western Corinthian classical columns and Malay influence is said to make itself known in the fenestration, notwithstanding a Georgian-style simplicity in the fanlights, characteristic also of the sultan’s palace. Internal lights are said to originate from Turkey; marble is said to have been imported from Italy and Islamic influences have been attributed to the Sultan Hassan Mosque and the Imam Shafie Mosque, both in Cario, Egypt.

 

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