Sketching Johor Bahru #4

February 6, 2014

Rabu, Mendung, 32C . Masjid Negeri Sultan Abu Bakar dibina antara tahun 1892 dan 1900 di bawah arahan Sultan Abuk Bakar (yang tidak hidup untuk melihat siap), dengan arkitek Tuan Haji Mohamed Arif bin Punak.

Selaras dengan kepentingan Anglophile Sultan Johor, masjid adalah hampir Victoria sifatnya dengan, selain daripada bidai perladangan kayu pada pintu, bukti minimum apa-apa pengaruh Melayu. Tutup ke istana sultan dalam saiz mengenakan, menara menyamar sebagai menara jam Barat. Yang paling mengenakan yang menara jam menandakan pintu masuk dan membentuk porte-cochère tidak jauh berbeza dengan pintu masuk untuk istana diraja yang berdekatan dan dewan penonton, Balai Cengkih. Setiap satu daripada menara adalah empat tingkat, dengan kuasa dua iaitu pertama dan kedua dan octagonals Parsi ketiga dan keempat membentuk. Dari segi terperinci muka bangunan , Alice Ishmail telah disenaraikan dalam QUT tesis 2008 beliau pelbagai ciri-ciri Barat: kubah, bumbung keranjingan, menara, tiang klasik, pilasters, menunjukkan gerbang, keystones, pediments dan pentafsiran yang ditampal pada birai hias dan ibukota. Semua ini, kecuali kubah dan pediments adalah adalah yang terdapat di istana sultan yang berdekatan . Ketiadaan kayu dan ukiran kayu halus, digantikan di sini dengan kedudukan yang kukuh rendering plaster, menunjukkan peralihan daripada masjid vernakular kepada gaya masjid penjajahan besar. Contoh masjid penjajah Malaya dengan pengaruh Moor (termasuk ciri-ciri klasik) adalah Masjid Acheh Street, Georgetown , Pulau Pinang (1808), Masjid Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu (1808), Masjid Sultan Abu Bakar, Johor Bahru, Johor (1892), Masjid Jamek , Ipoh , Perak (1898), Masjid India, Ipoh, Perak (1908), Masjid Jamek, Kuala Lumpur (1909), Masjid Syed Alwi, Kangar, Perlis (1910), Masjid Zahir, Alor Setar, Kedah (1912), Masjid Ubudiah, Kuala Kangsar, Perak (1912), Masjid Kapitan Keling, Georgetown, Pulau Pinang (1916), Masjid Al-Muhammadi, Kota Bharu, Kelantan (1922), Masjid Alauddin, Kelang, Selangor (1925) dan Masjid Jamek, Muar, Johor (1925). Skim warna dinding putih dan bumbung biru berjubin adalah sama seperti istana sultan, tetapi di sini di masjid, kursus tali di atas beberapa gerbang pintu masuk dan rendah bersudut pediments setengah bulan di atas tingkap telah dicat dengan satu kuning-oren. Bahagian termasuk Barat tiang Corinthian dua klasik dan pengaruh Melayu dikatakan membuat dirinya dikenali dalam bukaan itu, walaupun kesederhanaan gaya Georgia di fanlights, juga ciri istana sultan. Lampu dalaman dikatakan berasal dari Turki; marmar dikatakan telah diimport dari Itali dan pengaruh Islam telah dikaitkan dengan Masjid Sultan Hassan dan Masjid Imam Shafie, kedua-dua di Mesir.

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Wednesday, overcast, 32C. The Masjid Negeri Sultan Abu Bakar was constructed between 1892 and 1900 under the direction of Sultan Abuk Bakar (who didn’t live to see its completion), with architect Tuan Haji Mohamed Arif bin Punak.

Consistent with the Anglophile interests of the Johor Sultan, the mosque is almost completely Victorian in character with, apart from wooden plantation shutters on the doors, minimal evidence of any Malay influence. Close to the sultan’s palace in its imposing size, minarets are disguised as Western clocktowers. The most imposing of the clocktowers marks the entrance and forms a porte-cochere not dissimilar to entrances for the nearby royal palace and the audience hall, Balai Cengkih. Each of the minarets is four-storeys high, with the first and second being squares and the third and fourth forming Persian octagonals.

In terms of facade detail, Alice Ishmail has listed in her 2008 QUT thesis a variety of Western features: domes, hipped roof, turrets, classical columns, pilasters, pointed arches, keystones, pediments and plastered renderings on cornices and capitals. All of these, except for domes and pediments are are to be found on the nearby sultan’s palace. The absence of timber and fine wood carving, replaced here by strong presence of plaster rendering, indicates a move away from vernacular mosques to the grand colonial mosque style. Examples of Malayan colonial mosques with the Moorish influences (including classical features) are Acheen Street Mosque, Georgetown, Penang (1808), Abidin Mosque, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu (1808), Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque, Johor Bahru, Johor (1892), Jamek Mosque, Ipoh, Perak (1898), Indian Mosque, Ipoh, Perak (1908), Jamek Mosque, Kuala Lumpur (1909), Syed Alwi Mosque, Kangar, Perlis (1910), Zahir Mosque, Alor Setar, Kedah (1912), Ubudiah Mosque, Kuala Kangsar, Perak (1912), Kapitan Keling Mosque, Georgetown, Penang (1916), Al-Muhammadi Mosque, Kota Bharu, Kelantan (1922), Alauddin Mosque, Kelang, Selangor (1925) and Jamek Mosque, Muar, Johor (1925). Examples of the colonial mosques with later Art-Deco influence are Sultan Sulaiman Mosque, Kelang, Selangor (1932) and Jamek Mosque of Pontian, Johor (1938).The color scheme of plain white walls and blue-tiled roof is the same as the sultan’s palace, but here at the mosque, string courses above some of the entrance arches and low-angled half-moon pediments above the windows have been painted in a yellow-orange.

The interior includes double Western Corinthian classical columns and Malay influence is said to make itself known in the fenestration, notwithstanding a Georgian-style simplicity in the fanlights, characteristic also of the sultan’s palace. Internal lights are said to originate from Turkey; marble is said to have been imported from Italy and Islamic influences have been attributed to the Sultan Hassan Mosque and the Imam Shafie Mosque, both in Cario, Egypt.

 

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Sketching Johor Bahru #3

February 4, 2014

Selasa, mendung , 28C.

Saya memasuki perkarangan Istana Besar (Grand Palace) di tebing Selat Johor dari Jalan Air Molek di timur, berhampiran mata air yang dengan kot diraja senjata patung, lalu mata air patung buaya untuk luas timur-barat persegi panjang istana diraja, tetapkan di tengah-tengah 53 hektar halaman rumput yang terawat. Walaupun kadang-kadang masih digunakan untuk upacara negeri dan diraja, ia telah menjadi muzium sejak tahun 1990, yang ditujukan untuk koleksi diraja dan dinamakan sempena bapa Johor Bahur pemodenan, Sultan Abu Bakar, Anglophile dan rakan kepada Ratu Victoria – Muzium Diraja Sultan Abu Bakar.

Bangunan ini, sebahagiannya direka oleh Datuk Yahaya Awaludin dan di bawah penyeliaan seseorang arkitek Inggeris, mempunyai kedua-dua Anglo dan ciri-ciri Melayu. Walaupun Istana Zahara (Balai Cengkih) adalah seorang bintang empat pecah, Istana adalah berbentuk T, dengan penekanan kepada panjang menyapu, terdapat banyak ciri-ciri yang sama untuk kedua-dua bangunan: pilasters dua kali dengan ibu Tuscan (Corinthian di sayap sisi Istana Besar), kemasukan ruangan klasik (pilasters tanpa dan lajur dalam) tetapi pengecualian pediment. Hiasan permen berbentuk daripada birai, di Istana Zahara menjadi alat dinding jambatan di Istana Sultan. Gandaan portes-cochere daripada Zahara menjadi tangga luar tunggal besar. Di Istana Besar, ruangan klasik, yang dikaitkan dengan kursus tali, sedang mendahului dengan colonnettes. Dalam alasan Palace colonnette diulangi sebagai asas cahaya. Walaupun bangunan pusat mempunyai dinding jambatan yang tersendiri, sayap sebelah menampilkan sapu yang lebih kukuh sebanyak bumbung dengan tidak terjual, yang menyumbang kepada perasaan yang lebih jelas Melayu. Setiap satu daripada sayap sebelah mempunyai Gothic tingkap plat pola perhiasan dan bumbung hip-gabled rendah. Bermula pada tahun 1866, ia telah melalui banyak pengubahsuaian dan sambungan.

Satu gerbang pintu masuk mengenakan dalam sekali reka bentuk Art Deco nampaknya telah ditambah selepas istana. Muzium ini ditempatkan di dalam dua daripada tiga bangunan putih, semua dengan biru-jubin nada bumbung, di kompleks dan terdiri daripada empat bahagian: Dewan (dalam bangunan barat); Bilik Arasy, Bilik Harta dan Bilik Memburu (dalam bangunan pusat). Bangunan timur tidak dibuka kepada orang ramai.

Di Dewan dipaparkan pelbagai barang-barang yang dipersembahkan kepada Sultan Abu Bakar dan penggantinya oleh orang kenamaan, seperti pedang, pingat, barangan kaca, dan lain-lain Termasuk juga adalah biografi terperinci Sultan Abu Bakar dan penggantinya , Sultan Abu Bakar batu dada, yang sultan ‘ memorabilia peribadi, gambar sultan dan keluarga mereka, dan lain-lain Dalam Bilik Memburu , pameran termasuk haiwan disumbat (harimau, buaya, badak, gajah), gading gajah gading , payung kaki gajah berdiri, asbak kaki antelop, dan lain-lain.

Dalam bangunan pusat di peringkat kedua (anda perlu membuang kasut anda), anda boleh mencari bilik penerimaan, bilik tidur diraja (perhatikan katil jati bertiang empat), ruang makan diraja, ruang Majlis Diraja, rong (ia mempunyai sepasang pelamin sepuhan), perpustakaan, dan lain-lain dewan jamuan di peringkat pertama hanya boleh dilihat dari peringkat kedua. Perabot di dalam bilik-bilik ini gaya Rococo termasuk perabot kayu yang indah dari pelbagai negara, kerusi kaca kristal dan jadual dari Perancis, seramik Jepun, lukisan minyak daripada kaum kerabat, candelier, dan lain-lain Pada tahap pertama bangunan pusat, anda boleh menemui pameran seperti emas / perak, barang kristal, emas dan barang kemas perak, pakaian diraja, senjata tangan Melayu, koleksi Numismatik, dan lain-lain, ditutup apabila terdapat fungsi-fungsi dan upacara rasmi.

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Tuesday, overcast, 28C. I entered the grounds of the Istana Besar (Grand Palace) on the banks of the Johor Strait from Jalan Air Molek in the east, near the fountain with the royal coat of arms sculpture, past the crocodile statue fountain to the vast east-west rectangle of the royal palace, set amid 53 hectares of manicured lawns. While still used occasionally for state and royal ceremonies, it has been a museum since 1990, devoted to the royal collections and named after the father of Johor Bahur modernisation, Sultan Abu Bakar, Anglophile and friend to Queen Victoria – Muzium Diraja Sultan Abu Bakar.

The building, in part designed by Datuk Yahaya Awaludin and under the supervision of an English architect, has both Anglo and Malay features. While the Istana Zahara (Balai Cengkih) was a four-pointed star, the Palace is T-shaped, with an emphasis on sweeping length, there are many features common to both buildings: double pilasters with Tuscan capitals (Corinthian on the east wing of the Istana Besar), inclusion of classical columns (pilasters without and columns within) but exclusion of the pediment. The lozenge-shaped decoration of the balustrades in the Istana Zahara becomes a parapet device in the Sultan’s Palace. The multiple portes-cochere of the Zahara becomes a single grand outdoor staircase. In the Istana Besar, the classical columns, linked with a string course, are topped by colonnettes. In the Palace grounds the colonnette is repeated as a light base. While the central building has a distinctive parapet, with fretted timber edge, the west wing roof features a stronger sweep of roof with overhang, contributing to a more obviously Malay feeling, contrasting with the low hip-gabled ‘Western’ roof of the east wing, which has a half-circle end with a Gothic plate tracery window. Begun in 1866, it has gone through numerous renovations and extensions.

An imposing entrance arch in stark Art Deco design appears to have been added after the palace.

The museum is housed in two of the three white buildings, all with blue-tile pitched roofs, in the complex and consists of four parts: the Dewan (in the west building); the Throne Room, the Treasure Rooms and the Hunting Room (in the central building). The east building is not open to the public.

In the Dewan are displayed an array of items presented to Sultan Abu Bakar and his successors by dignitaries, such as swords, medals, glassware, etc. Included also are detailed biographies of Sultan Abu Bakar and his successors, Sultan Abu Bakar’s stone bust, the sultans’ personal memorabilia, photographs of the sultans and their families, etc. In the Hunting Room, exhibits include stuffed animals (tigers, crocodiles, rhinoceros, elephants), elephant ivory tusks, elephant’s foot umbrella stands, antelope leg ashtrays, etc.

In the central building on the second level (you have to remove your shoes), you can find the reception rooms, the royal bedrooms (note the four-poster teak beds), the royal dining room, the chamber of the Royal Council, the throne room (it has a pair of gilt thrones), the library, etc. The banqueting hall on the first level can be seen only from the second level. The furnishings inside these Rococo-style rooms include exquisite wooden furniture from various countries, crystal glass chairs and tables from France, Japanese ceramics, oil paintings of the royals, chandeliers, etc. On the first level of the central building, you can find exhibits such as gold/silverware, crystal ware, gold and silver jewelery, royal regalia, Malay hand weapons, a numismatic collection, etc., closed when there are official functions and ceremonies. 

Sketching Johor Bahru #2

February 3, 2014

Isnin; ribut petir, 32C, 100% kelembapan. 

Istana Taman (atau Johor Bahru Palace Gardens), menghadap ke Selat Johor, mengandungi beberapa bangunan bersejarah yang penting – Muzium Diraja (Muzium Diraja Sultan Abu Bakar), yang sebelum ini Istana Besar (1866) dan bersebelahan Dewan/Balai, dan juga Johor Zoo, Taman Botani Johor dan Masjid Abu Bakar. Bangunan-bangunan istana tarikh dari masa apabila Maharaja Abu Bakar (Temenggong sehingga 1868) menjadi Sultan Johor pada tahun 1885 dan berpindah ke Johor Bahru. Dewan penonton bekas Maharaja (kini Sultan masjid Johor Masjid Jamek) masih kekal di Telok Blangah, Singapura. Terdapat dua bangunan-bangunan penting lain selain: Istana Zahara, lama dirobohkan, dan Balai Zaharah ditinggalkan atau dewan penonton. Istana Zahara dibina sebagai tempat kediaman untuk keluarga besar Sultan Ibrahim, termasuk adik perempuannya, Ungku Zaharah, dari siapa bangunan ini dinamakan. Apabila ia selesai, seluruh keluarga diraja berpindah dari Telok Blangah di Singapura dalam perjalanan yang perlahan oleh laut yang mengambil masa beberapa hari. Utama Dato ‘Mohd Said bin Haji Sulaiman, setiausaha selama empat puluh tahun kepada Sultan Ibrahim, menulis dalam Hikayat Johor :

Pada 27 Mac 1889, Duli Yang Maha Mulia dipindahkan keluarganya yang telah menetap di Telok Blangah ke Johor Bahru. Duli Yang Maha Mulia telah menyediakan sebuah istana indah untuk mereka di atas bukit berhampiran Istana Besar. Istana itu dinamakan Istana Zaharah selepas adik perempuannya Ungku Zaharah yang adalah antara orang-orang yang tinggal telah dipindahkan.

Balai Zaharah atau Penonton Dewan dianggap telah dibina pada tahun 1858, dan diberi nama Balai Cengkih bukan sahaja kerana ia dihiasi dengan reka bentuk hiasan tumbuhan bunga cengkih (cengkih) tetapi juga kerana struktur bangunan itu sendiri, dengan yang empat unjuran, telah berbentuk seperti batang bunga cengkih, untuk menampung empat kumpulan utama kenamaan asing: orang Melayu , Inggeris, Cina dan India. Dewan telah digunakan khusus untuk upacara diraja seperti perasmian sultan dan perkahwinan diraja. Tahap bumi telah digunakan sebagai muzium untuk kereta antik Sultan Abu Bakar dan Sultan Ibrahim. Setelah tamat Istana Besar (Sultan Abu Bakar Istana Besar), kediaman diraja dipindahkan ke istana baru dan bangunan ini telah dibiarkan kosong. Ia mungkin telah digunakan untuk acara-acara dan upacara diraja sehingga tahun 1913, sebagai contoh, pengisytiharan Sultan Ibrahim pada 7 September 1895 sebagai Sultan Johor. Dari seawal 1863 atau kemudian dari tahun 1913, ia telah digunakan sebagai sekolah Inggeris dan dari tahun 1970-an sehingga akhir 1980-an bangunan ini telah digunakan sebagai Sekolah Agama Bukit Zaharah (Sekolah Agama Bukit Zahara). Walau bagaimanapun, apabila sekolah agama telah berpindah ke bangunan baru di Jalan Yahya Awal, bangunan ini dibiarkan terbengkalai . Ciri-ciri seni bina Barat boleh dilihat dalam penggunaan ruangan ionik klasik, kerja plaster hiasan pada bahagian luar dan dalam dinding, kaca hiasan di atas tingkap dan pintu bentuk kunci. Sama seperti ciri-ciri seni bina Barat yang lain, tingkap bangunan ini adalah bentuk segmen. Reka bentuk cengkih boleh dilihat dalam hiasan dinding, ibu lajur dan besi kerja di pintu gerbang di pintu masuk utama.

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Monday, thunderstorms, 32 degrees, 100% humidity. The Istana (or Palace) Gardens of Johor Bahru, overlooking the Straits of Johor, contain several important historical buildings – the Royal Museum (Muzium Diraja Sultan Abu Bakar), formerly the Istana Besar (1866) and its adjacent Dewan/Balai, as well the Johor Zoo, Johor Botanical Gardens and Abu Bakar Mosque. The palace buildings date from the time when Maharaja Abu Bakar (Temenggong until 1868) became the Sultan of Johor in 1885 and moved to Johor Bahru. The former Maharaja’s audience hall (currently the Sultan of Johor’s mosque Masjid Jamek) still remains in Telok Blangah, Singapore. There are two other important buildings besides: the Istana Zahara, long since demolished, and an abandoned Balai Zaharah or audience hall. The Istana Zahara was built as a residence for Sultan Ibrahim’s extended family, which included his younger sister, Ungku Zaharah, after whom the building was named. When it was completed, the rest of the royal family moved from Telok Blangah in Singapore in a slow journey by sea that took several days. Major Dato’ Mohd Said bin Haji Sulaiman, secretary for forty years to Sultan Ibrahim, wrote in the Hikayat Johor:

On 27th March 1889, His Highness relocated his family that had been residing in Telok Blangah to Johor Bahru. His Highness had prepared a magnificent palace for them on top of a hill near Istana Besar. The palace was named Istana Zaharah after his younger sister Ungku Zaharah who was among those whose residence was being moved.

The Balai Zaharah or Audience Hall is thought to have been built in 1858, and given the name Balai Cengkih not only because it was decorated with ornamental designs of the clove plant (cengkih) but also because the structure of the building itself, with its four projections, was shaped like the stem of the clove, to accommodate four main groups of foreign dignitaries: the Malays, English, Chinese and Indians. The Hall was used specifically for royal ceremonies such as the inauguration of the sultan and royal weddings. The ground level was used as a museum for the antique cars of Sultan Abu Bakar and Sultan Ibrahim . Upon the completion of Istana Besar (Sultan Abu Bakar Grand Palace), the royal residence was moved to the new palace and this building was left vacant. It may have been in use for royal events and ceremonies until 1913, for example, the proclamation of Sultan Ibrahim on 7 September 1895 as Sultan of Johor.

From as early as 1863 or later from 1913, it was used as an English school and from the 1970s until the end of 1980s this building was used as the Bukit Zaharah Religious School (Sekolah Agama Bukit Zahara). However, when the religious school was moved to a new building in Jalan Yahya Awal, the building was left abandoned. The Western architectural features can be seen in the use of classical ionic columns, decorative plaster work on the exterior and interior walls, decorative glass above the windows and doors of keystone shape. Similar to other western architectural features, the windows of this building are of segmental shape. The clove design can be seen in the wall decorations, column capitals and iron work in the gate at the main entrance.

The Istana or Palace Gardens of Johor Bahru, overlooking the Straits of Johor, contain several important historical buildings – the Royal Museum (Muzium Diraja Sultan Abu Bakar), formerly the Istana Besar (1866) and its adjacent Dewan/Balai, as well the Johor Zoo, Johor Botanical Gardens and Abu Bakar Mosque. The palace buildings date from the time when Maharaja Abu Bakar (Temenggong until 1868) became the Sultan of Johor in 1885 and moved to Johor Bahru. The former Maharaja’s audience hall (currently the Sultan of Johor’s mosque Masjid Jamek) still remains in Telok Blangah, Singapore.

There are two other important buildings besides: the Istana Zahara, long since demolished, and an abandoned Balai Zaharah or audience hall. The Istana Zahara was built as a residence for Sultan Ibrahim’s extended family, which included his younger sister, Ungku Zaharah, after whom the building was named. When it was completed, the rest of the royal family moved from Telok Blangah in Singapore in a slow journey by sea that took several days. Major Dato’ Mohd Said bin Haji Sulaiman, secretary for forty years to Sultan Ibrahim, wrote in the Hikayat Johor:

On 27th March 1889, His Highness relocated his family that had been residing in Telok Blangah to Johor Bahru. His Highness had prepared a magnificent palace for them on top of a hill near Istana Besar. The palace was named Istana Zaharah after his younger sister Ungku Zaharah who was among those whose residence was being moved.

The Balai Zaharah or Audience Hall is thought to have been built in 1858, and given the name Balai Cengkih not only because it was decorated with ornamental designs of the clove plant (cengkih) but also because the structure of the building itself, with its four projections, was shaped like the stem of the clove, to accommodate four main groups of foreign dignitaries: the Malays, English, Chinese and Indians. The Hall was used specifically for royal ceremonies such as the inauguration of the sultan and royal weddings. The ground level was used as a museum for the antique cars of Sultan Abu Bakar and Sultan Ibrahim . Upon the completion of Istana Besar (Sultan Abu Bakar Grand Palace), the royal residence was moved to the new palace and this building was left vacant. It may have been in use for royal events and ceremonies until 1913, for example, the proclamation of Sultan Ibrahim on 7 September 1895 as Sultan of Johor. From as early as 1863 or later from 1913, it was used as an English school and from the 1970s until the end of 1980s this building was used as the Bukit Zaharah Religious School (Sekolah Agama Bukit Zahara). However, when the religious school was moved to a new building in Jalan Yahya Awal, the building was left abandoned.

The Western architectural features can be seen in the use of classical columns with Tuscan capitals, decorative plaster work on the exterior and interior walls, decorative glass above the windows and doors of keystone shape. While the columns hint at a classical style, there is a distinct lack of any pediments. The wide gentle-curving arches are a strong feature, complete with starkly simple keystones. The fanlights with their segmented design are more elaborate than in Istana Besar where they take on a Regency simplicity. The clove design can be seen in the wall decorations, column capitals and iron work in the gate at the main entrance, and perhaps in the lozenge-shape decoration of the balustrades.

 

Sketching Johor Bahru #1

February 1, 2014

rumah merahMinguu, mendung, 26C, tetapi berasa banyak yang lebih panas kerana 100 % kelembapan. Melawat beberapa penjaja lama terutamanya di sepanjang Jalan Tan Hiok Nee, salah satu daripada jalan-jalan yang tertua JB dengan banyak pra-perang bangunan gaya kolonial, penuh dengan kedai-kedai menarik, penjual dan kafe luar. Jalan batu buntar selari dengan Selat dan bersebelahan dengan titik yang paling dekat sambungan ke Singapura melalui Tambak Johor. Mengambil pertengahan pagi kopi Haianese, telur rebus lembut dan roti bakar Perancis pada Hau Mui, beberapa Bengali karipap kambing yang penuh dengan kerak flakey di Salahuddin Bakery, beroperasi sejak tahun 1937. Terpaksa lakarkan “Rumah Merah” yang terkenal di sudut Jln Pahang dan Jln Tan Hiok Nee mana acara kebudayaan dan seni dipentaskan. Pada No.52 , Old Street Studio adalah tempat potret lakaran komersial. Jalan ini dinamakan sempena seorang pedagang Cina tempatan penting yang menjadi seorang pegawai penting dengan gelaran Kapitan Cina atau ‘ Major Cina’ pada tahun 1870, kira-kira 15 tahun yang singkat selepas Johor Bahru dibina sehingga menjadi pusat pentadbiran bagi pemerintah berdaulat (dan berikutnya kemasukan pendatang Cina ) daripada dahulunya sebuah perkampungan nelayan Melayu yang rendah hati.

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Sunday, cloudy and overcast. 26C but feels a lot hotter due to 100% humidity. Visiting some of the old hawkers mainly along Jalan Tan Hiok Nee, one of JB’s oldest streets with lots of pre-war Colonial-style buildings, full of quaint shops, vendors and outdoor cafes. The cobblestone road runs parallel to the Straits and is adjacent to the closest point of connection to Singapore via the Johor Causeway. Took mid-morning Haianese coffee, soft boiled egg and French toast at Hau Mui, some lamb-filled Bengali curry puffs with flakey crust at Salahuddin Bakery, operating since 1937. Had to sketch the famous “Red House” at number 56, on the corner of Jln Pahang and Jln Tan Hiok Nee, where cultural and art events are staged. The 19th-century building was originally owned by an Indian family; note the beautiful kerawang design of the gold ventilation panels above the doors and windows. At No.52, Old Street Studio is a commercial portrait-sketching venue, spilling onto the pavement at night with finished work gracing the walls inside. The street is named after an important local Chinese trader who became an important official with the title of Kapitan Cina or ‘Major Chinese’ in 1870, some short 15 years after Johor Bahru was built up into an administrative centre for the sovereign ruler (and ensuing influx of Chinese immigrants) from formerly being a humble Malay fishing village.